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Author Jiang, Z.
Title Snow leopards in the Dulan International Hunting Ground, Qinghai, China Type Report
Year 2005 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-8
Keywords snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; International; hunting; Qinghai; China; project; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; surveys; survey; mountains; mountain; province; transect; study; area; transects; pug; pug marks; pug-marks; marks; scrapes; scrape; density; densities; wild; ungulates; ungulate; region; camera; environment; photo; capture; population; population size; population-size; Animals; Animal; 20; livestock; Human; attitudes; attitude; tibetan; 30; nature; reserve; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; species; snow line; snow-line; endemic; alpine; central; Central Asia; asia; countries; country; fox; range; areas; Xinjiang; inner; Inner-Mongolia; Mongolia; Tibet; gansu; Sichuan; habitat; protection; nature reserves; reserves; cat; populations; domestic; laws; law; field; field surveys; field survey; field-surveys; field-survey; Kunlun; distribution; survival; status; Data; conservation
Abstract From March to May, 2006œªwe conducted extensive snow leopard surveys in the Burhanbuda Mountain Kunlun Mountains, Qinghai Province, China. 32 linear transect of 5~15 km each, which running through each vegetation type, were surveyed within the study area. A total of 72 traces of snow leopard were found along 4 transects (12.5% of total transects). The traces included pug marks or footprints, scrapes and urine marks. We estimated the average density of wild ungulates in the region was 2.88ñ0.35 individuals km-2(n=29). We emplaced 16 auto2 trigger cameras in different environments and eight photos of snow leopard were shot by four cameras and the capture rate of snow leopard was 71.4%. The minimum snow leopard population size in the Burhanbuda Mountain was two, because two snow leopards were phototrapped by different cameras at almost same time. Simultaneously, the cameras also shot 63 photos of other wild animals, including five photos are unidentified wild animals, and 20 photos of livestock. We evaluated the human attitudes towards snow leopard by interviewing with 27 Tibetan householders of 30 householders live in the study area. We propose to establish a nature reserve for protecting and managing snow leopards in the region. Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is considered as a unique species because it lives above the snow line, it is endemic to alpines in Central Asia, inhabiting in 12 countries across Central Asia (Fox, 1992). Snow leopard ranges in alpine areas in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Tibet, Gansu and Sichuan in western China (Liao, 1985, 1986; Zhou, 1987; Ma et al., 2002; Jiang & Xu, 2006). The total population and habitat of snow leopards in China are estimated to be 2,000~2,500 individuals and 1,824,316 km2, only 5% of which is under the protection of nature reserves. The cat's current range is fragmented (Zou & Zheng, 2003). Due to strong human persecutions, populations of snow leopards decreased significantly since the end of the 20th century. Thus, the

snow leopards are under the protection of international and domestic laws. From March to May, 2006, we conducted two field surveys in Zhiyu Village, Dulan County in Burhanbuda Mountain, Kunlun Mountains, China to determine the population, distribution and survival status of snow leopards in the area. The aim of the study was to provide ecologic data for snow leopard conservation.
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Notes Project funded by International Snow Leopard Trust Small Grants Program. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1068 Serial 493
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Author Khatiwada, J.R.; Chalise, M.K.; Kyes, R.
Title Survey of Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) and Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur) populations in the Kangchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA), Nepal. Final report Type Report
Year 2007 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-13
Keywords survey; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; populations; population; conservation; area; Nepal; Report; study; information; management; system; Slims; relative abundance; abundance; transects; transect; length; sign; scrapes; scrape; 20; feces; scent; pugmarks; hairs; Hair; using; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; patterns; herders; herder; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; Animals; Animal
Abstract This study was carried out in the Kangchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA), Eastern Nepal from Feb – Nov 2007. We used the Snow Leopard Information Management System, SLIMS (second order survey technique) to determine the relative abundance of snow leopard in the upper part of KCA. Altogether, 36 transects (total length of 15.21 km) were laid down in the major three blocks of KCA. 104 Signs (77 scrapes, 20 feces, 2 Scent mark, 3 Pugmarks and 2 hairs) were recorded. Fixed-point count method was applied for blue sheep from appropriate vantage points. We counted total individual in each herd using 8x42 binocular and 15-60x spotting scope. A total of 43 herds and 1102 individuals were observed in the area. The standard SLIMS questionnaire was conducted to find out relevant information on livestock depredation patterns. Out of 35 households surveyed in KCA, 48% of herders lost livestock due to snow leopards. A total of 21 animals were reportedly lost due to snow leopards from August to September 2007.
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Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1070 Serial 533
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Author Shrestha, B.
Title Prey Abundance and Prey Selection by Snow Leopard (uncia uncia) in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal Type Report
Year 2008 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-35
Keywords project; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; network; conservation; program; prey; abundance; selection; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; Sagarmatha; national; national park; National-park; park; Nepal; resource; predators; predator; ecological; impact; region; community; structure; number; research; population; status; density; densities; wild; prey species; prey-species; species; Himalayan; tahr; musk; musk-deer; deer; game; birds; diet; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; awareness; co-existence; ungulates; ungulate; Human; using; areas; area; monitoring; transect; Hair; identification; scat; attack; patterns; sighting; 1760; populations; birth; Male; Female; young; domestic; domestic livestock; 120; scats; yak; Dog; pika; wildlife; Seasons; winter; horse; study; cover; land; predation; Pressure; development; strategy; threatened; threatened species; threatened-species; conflicts; conflict; people; control; husbandry; compensation; reintroduction; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; free ranging
Abstract Predators have significant ecological impacts on the region's prey-predator dynamic and community structure through their numbers and prey selection. During April-December 2007, I conducted a research in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park (SNP) to: i) explore population status and density of wild prey species; Himalayan tahr, musk deer and game birds, ii) investigate diet of the snow leopard and to estimate prey selection by snow leopard, iii) identify the pattern of livestock depredation by snow leopard, its mitigation, and raise awareness through outreach program, and identify the challenge and opportunities on conservation snow leopard and its co-existence with wild ungulates and the human using the areas of the SNP. Methodology of my research included vantage points and regular monitoring from trails for Himalayan tahr, fixed line transect with belt drive method for musk deer and game birds, and microscopic hair identification in snow leopard's scat to investigate diet of snow leopard and to estimate prey selection. Based on available evidence and witness accounts of snow leopard attack on livestock, the patterns of livestock depredation were assessed. I obtained 201 sighting of Himalayan tahr (1760 individuals) and estimated 293 populations in post-parturient period (April-June), 394 in birth period (July -October) and 195 November- December) in rutting period. In average, ratio of male to females was ranged from 0.34 to 0.79 and ratio of kid to female was 0.21-0.35, and yearling to kid was 0.21- 0.47. The encounter rate for musk deer was 1.06 and density was 17.28/km2. For Himalayan monal, the encounter rate was 2.14 and density was 35.66/km2. I obtained 12 sighting of snow cock comprising 69 individual in Gokyo. The ratio of male to female was 1.18 and young to female was 2.18. Twelve species (8 species of wild and 4 species of domestic livestock) were identified in the 120 snow leopard scats examined. In average, snow leopard predated most frequently on Himalayan tahr and it was detected in 26.5% relative frequency of occurrence while occurred in 36.66% of all scats, then it was followed by musk deer (19.87%), yak (12.65%), cow (12.04%), dog (10.24%), unidentified mammal (3.61%), woolly hare (3.01%), rat sp. (2.4%), unidentified bird sp. (1.8%), pika (1.2%), and shrew (0.6%) (Table 5.8 ). Wild species were present in 58.99% of scats whereas domestic livestock with dog were present in 40.95% of scats. Snow leopard predated most frequently on wildlife species in three seasons; spring (61.62%), autumn (61.11%) and winter (65.51%), and most frequently on domestic species including dog in summer season (54.54%). In term of relative biomass consumed, in average, Himalayan tahr was the most important prey species contributed 26.27% of the biomass consumed. This was followed by yak (22.13%), cow (21.06%), musk deer (11.32%), horse (10.53%), wooly hare (1.09%), rat (0.29%), pika (0.14%) and shrew (0.07%). In average, domestic livestock including dog were contributed more biomass in the diet of snow leopard comprising 60.8% of the biomass consumed whilst the wild life species comprising 39.19%. The annual prey consumption by a snow leopard (based on 2 kg/day) was estimated to be three Himalayan tahr, seven musk deer, five wooly hare, four rat sp., two pika, one shrew and four livestock. In the present study, the highest frequency of attack was found during April to June and lowest to July to November. The day of rainy and cloudy was the more vulnerable to livestock depredation. Snow leopard attacks occurred were the highest at near escape cover such as shrub land and cliff. Both predation pressure on tahr and that on livestock suggest that the development of effective conservation strategies for two threatened species (predator and prey) depends on resolving conflicts between people and predators. Recently, direct control of free – ranging livestock, good husbandry and compensation to shepherds may reduce snow leopard – human conflict. In long term solution, the reintroduction of blue sheep at the higher altitudes could also “buffer” predation on livestock.
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Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program. Forum of Natural Resource Managers, Nepal. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1076 Serial 887
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Author Suryawanshi, K.R.
Title Towards snow leopard prey recovery: understanding the resource use strategies and demographic responses of bharal Pseudois nayaur to livestock grazing and removal; Final project report Type Report
Year 2009 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-43
Keywords project; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; network; conservation; program; prey; recovery; resource; use; strategy; demographic; Response; bharal; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; livestock; grazing; Report; decline; wild; populations; population; Himalayan; region; Competition; threats; threat; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; study; diet; winter; Test; browse; nutrition; areas; area; young; Female; times; High; Adult; mortality; species; predators; predator; endangered; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya
Abstract Decline of wild prey populations in the Himalayan region, largely due to competition with livestock, has been identified as one of the main threats to the snow leopard Uncia uncia. Studies show that bharal Pseudois nayaur diet is dominated by graminoids during summer, but the proportion of graminoids declines in winter. We explore the causes for the decline of graminoids from bharal winter diet and resulting implications for bharal conservation. We test the predictions generated by two alternative hypotheses, (H1) low graminoid availability caused by livestock grazing during winter causes bharal to include browse in their diet, and, (H2) bharal include browse, with relatively higher nutrition, to compensate for the poor quality of graminoids during winter. Graminoid availability was highest in areas without livestock grazing, followed by areas with moderate and intense livestock grazing. Graminoid quality in winter was relatively lower than that of browse, but the difference was not statistically significant. Bharal diet was dominated by graminoids in areas with highest graminoid availability. Graminoid contribution to bharal diet declined monotonically with a decline in graminoid availability. Bharal young to female ratio was three times higher in areas with high graminoid availability than areas with low graminoid availability. No starvation-related adult mortalities were observed in any of the areas. Composition of bharal winter diet was governed predominantly by the availability of graminoids in the rangelands. Since livestock grazing reduces graminoid availability, creation of livestock free areas is necessary for conservation of grazing species such as the bharal and its predators such as the endangered snow leopard in the Trans-Himalaya.
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Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program, 2008. Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore. Post-graduate Program in Wildlife Biology and Conservation, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Wildlife Conservation Society -India program, Bangalore, India. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1077 Serial 952
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Author McCarthy, T.
Title Ecology and Conservation of Snow Leopards, Gobi Brown Bears, and Wild Bactrian Camels in Mongolia Type Book Whole
Year 2000 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords snow leopard; Uncia uncia; Mongolia; radio-collar; habitat use; movements; ecology; wild camel; brown bear; 5340
Abstract Snow leopard ecology, distribution and abundance in Mongolia were studied between 1993 and 1999. I placed VHF and satellite radio-collars on 4 snow leopards, 2 males and 2 females, to determine home ranges, habitat use, movements, and activity. Home ranges of snow leopards in Mongolia were substantially larger than reported elsewhere. Males ranged over 61 – 142 km2 and female 58 to 1,590 km2. Cats had crepuscular activity patterns with daily movements averaging 5.1 km. Intraspecific distances averaged 1.3 km for males to 7.8 km for males. Leopards selected moderately to very-broken habitat with slopes > 20o, in areas containing ibex. Leopard distribution and abundance was determined using sign surveys. Leopard range in Mongolia is approximately 103,000 km2 but cats are not uniformly distributed within that range. High-density areas include the eastern and central Transaltai Gobi and the northern Altai ranges. Relative leopard densities compared well with relative ibex densities on a regional basis. A snow leopard conservation plan was drafted for Mongolia that identifies problems and threats, and provides an action plan. Wild Bactrian camels occur in the Great Gobi National Park (GGNP) and are thought to be declining due to low recruitment. I surveyed camels by jeep and at oases, observing 142 (4.2% young) and 183 (5.3% young) in 1997 and 1998. Current range was estimated at 33,300 km2. Some winter and calving ranges were recently abandoned. Track sizes and tooth ages from skulls were used to assess demographics. A deterministic model was produced that predicts camel extinction within 25 to 50 years under current recruitment rates and population estimates. Gobi brown bears are endemic to Mongolia and may number less than 35. Three population isolates may occur. I collected genetic material from bears at oases using hair traps. Microsatellite analyses of nuclear DNA determined sixteen unique genotypes, only two of which occurred at more than one oases. Genetic diversity was very low with expected heterozygosity = 0.32, and alleles per locus = 2.3. Mitochondrial DNA sequences were compared to other clades of brown bear and found to fall outside of all known lineages.
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Publisher University of Massachusetts, Amherst Place of Publication Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 519 Serial 663
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Author McCarthy, T.; Fuller, T.; Munkhtsog, B.
Title Movements and activities of snow leopards in Southwestern Mongolia Type Miscellaneous
Year 2005 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume 124 Issue Pages 527-537
Keywords snow leopard; Uncia uncia; Mongolia; satellite radio-telemetry; home range; activity patterns; 6310
Abstract Four adult (2M:2F) snow leopards (Uncia uncia) were radio-monitored (VHF; one also via satellite) year-round during 1994-1997 in the Altai Mountains of southwestern Mongolia where prey densities (i.e., ibex, Capra siberica) were relatively low (0.9/km2). Marked animals were more active at night (51%) than during the day (35%). Within the study area, marked leopards showed strong a.nity for steep and rugged terrain, high use of areas rich in ungulate prey, and a.nity for habitat edges. The satellite-monitored leopard moved more than 12 km on 14% of consecutive days monitored. Home ranges determined by standard telemetry techniques overlapped substantially and were at least 13-141 km2in size. However, the satellite-monitored individual apparently ranged over an area of at least 1590 km2, and perhaps over as much as 4500 km2. Since telemetry attempts from the ground were

frequently unsuccessful dx¬ 72%_, we suspect all marked animals likely had large home ranges. Relatively low prey abundance in the area also suggested that home ranges of >500 km2were not unreasonable to expect, though these are >10-fold larger than measured in any other part of snow leopard range. Home ranges of snow leopards may be larger than we suspect in many areas, and thus estimation of snow leopard conservation status must rigorously consider logistical constraints inherent in telemetry studies, and the relative abundance of prey.
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Notes Journal Title: Biological Conservation Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 609 Serial 665
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Author Ming, M.; XuFeng; Turghan, M.; Shoujin, Y.
Title Report on Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) Surveys in Tomur, Xinjiang, China 2004 Type Miscellaneous
Year 2004 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords snow leopard; Uncia uncia; survey; distribution; abundance; population size; Tomur; Xinjiang; P.R.China; 5710
Abstract The Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) investigation in the Tomur area is the second step of the “Project of Snow Leopard Study in Xinjiang”. In this part of the project, we collected information on the distribution , abundance and population size of the snow leopard in this area. The investigation lasted for 3 weeks, between October 17 and November 7th, 2004. During the 22 days of field work, we surveyed 4 different places in Wensu County, Aksu District: e.g. Pochenzi and the Muzat River area, Bozdun and the Little Kuzbay River area, Yinyar and the Tomur River area, Taglak and the Qiong Tailan River area. The 4 main areas, along with a few other valleys, covered most of the Tomur National Conservation Zone. In total, we ran 42 transects. In 15 transects, we found signs left by snow leopards. We also collected 15 fecal samples for diet analysis. This time we interviewed nearly 90 local people from different nationalities: e.g. Han (Chinese), Uygur and Kyrgyz people, including herdsmen, geologists, mineworkers, drivers, veterinarians, businessmen, forest officials, soldiers and policemen. They provided us with an array of information on the historical and current distribution and abundance of the snow leopard in this area.
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Publisher Xinjiang Snow Leopard Group; Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography; Chinese Academy of Science Place of Publication Xinjian, P.R. of China Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 52 Serial 677
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Author Saparbayev; S.K.; Woodward, D.B.
Title Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) as an Indicator Species and Increasing Recreation Loads in the Almaty Nature Reserve Type Miscellaneous
Year 2008 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal Proceedings from the Fourth International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows i
Volume Issue Pages 511-515
Keywords snow leopard (Uncia uncia),Siberian ibex (Capra sibirica),Almaty Nature Reserve,Kazakhstan,ecotrail; 200
Abstract The purpose of this research is to analyze the data on ecology, biology and dynamics of snow leopard population in the Almaty Nature Reserve and to identify if the increasing numbers of ecotourists could contribute to the decrease of Uncia uncia population. The results of the study show that increasing recreation loads in the Reserve and adjacent territories elevate the disturbance level to the snow leopard's main prey Siberian Ibex and to the predator itself that could result in a decrease of population of this endangered species or its total extinction.
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Notes Conference in Montecatini Terme, Italy. 14-19 October 2008. Proceedings edited by Antonio Raschi and Sonia Trampetti. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 882 Serial 843
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Author Xu, F.; Ming, M.; Yin, S.-jing; Chundawat R.S.; Marden; Nui, Y.
Title Preliminary Study on the Habitat Selection of Uncia uncia Type Miscellaneous
Year 2006 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume 23 Issue Pages 471-473
Keywords study; habitat; Habitat selection; selection; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; Chinese; research; large; species; extinction; Felidae; central; mountains; mountain; Xinjiang; Tianshan Mountains; Altay; national; nature; reserve; fieldwork; sign; grazing; status; Test; analysis; primary; factor; topography; valley
Abstract Uncia uncia is one of the rare large species on the brink of extinction in Felidae in the world, and inhabit only the Central Asian mountains. It is said that there are currently only 4500-7300 Uncia uncia surviving. During the period from September 2004 to July 2005, the habitat selection of Uncia uncia was investigated in some mountains in Xinjiang, including the eastern Tianshan Mountains, Beita Mountains, Altay Mounts and Mount Tumor National Nature Reserve. In several months of fieldwork, we got 171 sign samples of Uncia uncia and 123 random samples in total. Five habitat features, i.e., the elevation, topographic features, vegetation type, grazing status and ruggedness, are selected to compare the difference of selectivity of the Uncia uncia habitat selection. The Chi-square goodness-of-fit test and the binomial test are used to check the significance of Uncia uncia habitat selection, and the principal component analysis is used to find the primary factors in in the selection. The result s are as follows : (1) Uncia uncia selected all kinds of the habitat types , especially the elevation , topography , vegetation types and ruggedness ; (2) Ruggedness and the vegetation types are the preliminary factors for the habitat selection. Topography is the secondary factor ; (3) Uncia uncia prefer to inhabit in the rugged habitat s with moderate shrubberies , and they also like to leave signs in valley bottoms rather than hillsides.
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Notes Full text available in ChineseName of periodical: Arid Zone Research Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 871 Serial 1036
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Author Zhou, S.
Title On “uncia uncia” and “meng ji” in Shan Hai Jin Type Miscellaneous
Year 1991 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 84-87
Keywords Animal; area; areas; China; Chinese; description; environment; fur; habitat; habitats; historical; meng ji; mountain; mountains; native; river; uncia; Uncia-uncia; Uncia uncia
Abstract Meng ji is described in Shan Hui Jin (Classic of Mountains and Rivers) as a leopard-like animal adept in hiding with white fur and a patterned forehead. This article makes a comparison between “meng ji” and “uncia uncia” in terms of their shapes, fur colors, natural environments of habitats, habits, characteristics and native areas, and comes to the conclusion that “meng ji” is what we call “uncia uncia” nowadays. The description of “meng ji” in Shan Hui Jin should be the first record of Uncia uncia in the world.
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Notes Full text available in ChineseJournal Title: China Historical Materials of Science and Technology Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 869 Serial 1089
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