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Author Lovari, S., Minder, I., Ferretti, F., Mucci, N., Randi, E., Pellizzi, B.
Title Common and snow leopards share prey, but not habitats: competition avoidance by large predators Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 291 Issue Pages 127-135
Keywords coexistence; resource partitioning; food habits; Panthera uncia; Panthera pardus.
Abstract Resource exploitation and behavioural interference underlie competition among

carnivores. Competition is reduced by specializing on different prey and/or spatiotemporal

separation, usually leading to different food habits. We predicted that

two closely related species of large cats, the endangered snow leopard and the

near-threatened common leopard, living in sympatry, would coexist through

habitat separation and exploitation of different prey species. In central Himalaya,

we assessed (2006–2010) habitat and diet overlap between these carnivores. The

snow leopard used grassland and shrubland, whereas the common leopard

selected forest. Contrary to our prediction, snow leopard and common leopard

preyed upon similar wild (Himalayan tahr, musk deer) and domestic species (Bos

spp., dogs). Dietary overlap between snow leopard and common leopard was 69%

(yearly), 76% (colder months) and 60% (warmer months). Thus, habitat separation

should be the result of other factors, most likely avoidance of interspecific

aggression. Habitat separation may not always lead to the use of different prey.

Avoidance of interspecific aggression, rather than exploitation of different

resources, could allow the coexistence of potentially competing large predators.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1402
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Author Lovari, S., Ventimiglia, M., Minder, I.
Title Food habits of two leopard species, competition, climate change and upper treeline: a way to the decrease of an endangered species? Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Ethology Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal
Volume 25 Issue 4 Pages 305-318
Keywords carnivore evolution, coexistence, sympatric species, diet, Panthera uncia, Panthera pardus.
Abstract For carnivore species, spatial avoidance is one of the evolutionary solutions to

coexist in an area, especially if food habits overlap and body sizes tend to coincide.

We reviewed the diets of two large cats of similar sizes, the endangered snow leopard

(Panthera uncia, 16 studies) and the near-threatened common leopard (Panthera par-

dus, 11 studies), in Asia. These cats share ca 10,000 km2 of their mountainous range,

although snow leopards tend to occur at a significantly higher altitude than common

leopards, the former being a cold-adapted species of open habitats, whereas the latter

is an ecologically flexible one, with a preference for woodland. The spectrum of prey

of common leopards was 2.5 times greater than that of snow leopards, with wild prey

being the staple for both species. Livestock rarely contributed much to the diet. When

the breadth of trophic niches was compared, overlap ranged from 0.83 (weight categories)

to one (main food categories). As these leopard species have approximately

the same size and comparable food habits, one can predict that competition will arise

when they live in sympatry. On mountains, climate change has been elevating the

upper forest limit, where both leopard species occur. This means a habitat increase

for common leopards and a substantial habitat reduction for snow leopards, whose

range is going to be squeezed between the forest and the barren rocky altitudes, with

medium- to long-term undesirable effects on the conservation of this endangered cat
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1403
Permanent link to this record