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Author Brown, J.L.; Wasser, S.K.; Wildt, D.E.; Graham, L.H. url 
  Title Comparative Aspects of Steroid Hormone Metabolism and Ovarian Activity in Felids, Measured Noninvasively in Feces Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Biol Reprod Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 776-786  
  Keywords Animal; Carbon; Radioisotopes; Carnivora; Cats; Chromatography; High; Pressure; Liquid; Comparative Study; Estradiol; metabolism; Estrone; feces; chemistry; Female; Ovary; physiology; Pregnancy; Progesterone; Pseudopregnancy; Support; Non-U.S.Gov't; browse; non; government; gov't; us; 170  
  Abstract Noninvasive fecal assays were used to study steroid metabolism and ovarian activity in several felid species. Using the domestic cat (Felis catus) as model, the excretory products of injected [14C]estradiol (E2) and [14C]progesterone (P4) were determined. Within 2 days, 97.0 +/- 0.6% and 96.7 +/- 0.5% of recovered E2 and P4 radioactivity, respectively, was found in feces. E2 was excreted as unconjugated estradiol and estrone (40%) and as a non-enzyme- hydrolyzable conjugate (60%). P4 was excreted primarily as non-enzyme- hydrolyzable, conjugated metabolites (78%) and as unconjugated pregnenolone epimers. A simple method for extracting fecal steroid metabolites optimized extraction efficiencies of the E2 and P4 excretion products (90.1 +/- 0.8% and 87.2 +/- 1.4%, respectively). Analysis of HPLC fractions of extracted fecal samples from the radiolabel-injected domestic cats revealed that E2 immunoreactivity coincided primarily with the unconjugated metabolized [14C]E2 peak, whereas progestogen immunoreactivity coincided with a single conjugated epimer and multiple unconjugated pregnenolone epimers. After HPLC separation, similar immunoreactive E2 and P4 metabolite profiles were observed in the leopard cat (F. bengalensis), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), and snow leopard (Panthera uncia). Longitudinal analyses demonstrated that changes in fecal E2 and P4 metabolite concentrations reflected natural or artificially induced ovarian activity. For example, severalfold increases in E2 excretion were associated with overt estrus or exogenous gonadotropin treatment, and elevated fecal P4 metabolite concentrations occurred during pregnant and nonpregnant (pseudopregnant) luteal phases. Although overall concentrations were similar, the duration of elevated fecal P4 metabolites during pseudopregnancy was approximately half that observed during pregnancy. In summary, steroid metabolism mechanisms appear to be conserved among these physically diverse, taxonomically related species. Results indicate that this hormone-monitoring approach will be extremely useful for elucidating the hormonal regulatory mechanism associated with the reproductive cycle, pregnancy, and parturition of intractable and endangered felid species.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3363 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Document Type: eng Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 251 Serial 198  
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Author Graham, L.H.; Goodrowe, K.L.; Raeside, J.I.; Liptrap, R.M. url 
  Title Non-invasive monitoring of ovarian function in several felid species by measurement of fecal estradiol-17-beta and progestins Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Zoo Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 14 Issue 3 Pages 223-237  
  Keywords Artificial-Breeding-Program; captive-management; Estradiol-17beta; Pregnancy; Progesterone; Progestin; sexual-behavior; genetics; zoo; medicine; veterinary; snow-leopard; feces; fecal-analysis; snow leopard; artificial; breeding; program; captive; management; Estradiol; 17beta; sexual; behavior; browse; snow; leopard; fecal; analysis; 1390  
  Abstract An extraction and assay procedure to measure fecal estradiol-17-beta and progestin concentrations in several cat species was developed and validated for use for noninvasive monitoring of ovarian function. Fecal samples were collected over a range of 3-20 months from female tigers (three), lions (three), snow leopards (three), cheetahs (two), caracals (two), and domestic cats (five). Samples were extracted with 90% methanol, lipids removed with petroleum ether, and the estradiol and progestins in the methanol measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fractionation and subsequent RIA of the fractions indicated that the estradiol-17-beta antiserum cross-reacted primarily with estradiol-17-beta in the feces of lions and tigers and was assumed to be specific for estradiol-17-beta in the feces of other species as well. However, there were several immunoreactive compounds, presumably progesterone metabolites, excreted in the feces which varied both quantitatively and qualitatively among species. The behavior of tigers, lions, cheetahs, and caracals was visually monitored during the collection period and frequency of sexual behaviors was positively correlated with increases in fecal estradiol in all species observed. The mean fecal estradiol-17-beta peaks were as follows: tigers, 128.0 +- 13.1; lions, 186.0 +- 14.8; snow leopards, 136.7 +- 15.9; cheetahs, 140.9 +- 9.0; caracals, 24.5 +- 4.0; and domestic cats 158.9 +- 19.3 ng/gm. Fecal progestin concentrations rose significantly (P lt 0,001) only after breeding or during pregnancy and were as follows: tigers, 5.6 +- 0.6; lions, 1.9 +- 0.1; cheetahs, 8.4 +- 1.1; and caracals, 2.4 +- 0.4 mu-g/gm. Fecal progestins were elevated for one-half to two-thirds of the gestation length during presumed pseudopregnancy but remained elevated throughout successful pregnancies. These results suggest that ovarian function can be monitored noninvasively in the family Felidae by the measurement of fecal estradiol-17-beta and progestin concentrations.  
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  Notes Document Type: English Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 279 Serial 345  
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Author Roth, T.L.; Armstrong, D.L.; Barrie, M.T.; Wildt, D.E. url 
  Title Seasonal effects on ovarian responsiveness to exogenous gonadotrophins and successful artificial insemination in the snow leopard (Uncia uncia) Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication Reprod Fertil Dev Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 9 Issue 3 Pages 285-295  
  Keywords Animal; Carnivora; anatomy; histology; Blood; physiology; Estradiol; Female; Gonadotropins; administration; dosage; pharmacology; Chorionic; Equine; Human; Insemination; artificial; methods; veterinary; Laparoscopy; Male; Oocytes; cytology; Ovary; drug; effects; Ovulation; Induction; Pregnancy; Progesterone; Seasons; Support; Non-U.S.Gov't; browse; non; us; gov't; government; 400  
  Abstract Ovaries of the seasonally-breeding snow leopard (Uncia uncia) were examined to determine whether they were responsive to exogenous gonadotrophins throughout the year. The potential of laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI) also was assessed for producing offspring. During the non-breeding, pre-breeding, breeding and post-breeding seasons, females (n = 20) were treated with a standardized, dual- hormone regimen given intramuscularly (600 I.U. of equine chorionic gonadotrophin followed 80-84 h later with 300 I.U. of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)). Laparoscopy was performed 45-50 h after administration of hCG, and all ovarian structures were described. Females with fresh corpora lutea (CL) were inseminated, and anovulatory females were subjected to follicular aspiration to examine oocyte quality. Snow leopards responded to exogenous gonadotrophins throughout the year. Mean number of total ovarian structures (distinct follicles mature in appearance plus CL) did not differ (P > or = 0.05) with season, but the proportion of CL: total ovarian structures was greater (P < 0.01) for the breeding season compared with all other seasons. The proportion of females ovulating was greater (P < 0.05) during the breeding and post-breeding seasons than during the pre-breeding and non- breeding seasons respectively. No Grade-1 quality oocytes were recovered from follicles of anovulatory females. Serum concentrations of oestradiol-17 beta appeared elevated in all females, and neither oestradiol-17 beta concentrations nor progesterone concentrations differed (P > or = 0.05) among seasons. Of 15 females artificially inseminated, the only one that was inseminated in the non-breeding season became pregnant and delivered a single cub. This is the first successful pregnancy resulting from AI in this endangered species.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1031-3613 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Document Type: eng Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 325 Serial 830  
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Author Schmidt, A.M.; Hess, D.L.; Schmidt, M.J.; Lewis, C.R. url 
  Title Serum concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone and frequency of sexual behaviour during the normal oestrous cycle in the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication J Reprod Fertil Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 98 Issue 1 Pages 91-95  
  Keywords Animal; Animals; zoo; physiology; Carnivora; Estradiol; Blood; estrus; Female; Progesterone; Seasons; Sex; behavior; Support; U.S.Gov't; P.H.S.; browse; us; government; gov't; 490  
  Abstract Serum oestradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured at weekly intervals for six months, and correlated with daily behavioural observations in two adult female snow leopards (Panthera uncia). Three oestradiol peaks (> 21 pg ml-1; interval 3.6 weeks) were identified in a snow leopardess housed alone (two more were probably missed because of the weekly sampling schedule), and three oestradiol peaks were identified in a snow leopardess housed with a male as a breeding pair (interval 6 weeks). Daily frequencies of feline reproductive behaviour averaged 1.77 observations per observation period during weeks of high oestradiol and 0.62 during weeks of low oestradiol. Progesterone concentrations did not rise above baseline values (< 2 ng ml-1) in the isolated animal, but 6 weeks of high progesterone concentrations (4.9- 38.8 ng ml-1) was recorded in the paired snow leopardess following mating. No offspring were produced. Snow leopards were observed daily for an additional 4.5 years. Sexual behaviour peaks could be clearly identified from December through April, and average daily sexual behaviour scores were higher during these months than during the rest of the year. Intervals between sexual behaviour peaks for the isolated snow leopardess averaged 3.03 weeks. The sexual behaviour of the paired snow leopards decreased for 8-9 weeks following mating when no offspring were produced, and decreased for 13 weeks in one year when a single cub was born.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4251 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Document Type: eng Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 204 Serial 874  
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