|   | 
Details
   web
Records
Author (up) Ale, S., Shrestha, B., and Jackson, R.
Title On the status of Snow Leopard Panthera Uncia (Schreber 1775) in Annapurna, Nepal Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Threatened Taxa Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue 6(3) Pages 5534-5543
Keywords Annapurna, Blue Sheep, Buddhism, camera-trapping, Himalayas, Mustang, sign-survey, Snow Leopard.
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1407
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Shrestha, B.
Title Prey Abundance and Prey Selection by Snow Leopard (uncia uncia) in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal Type Report
Year 2008 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-35
Keywords project; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; network; conservation; program; prey; abundance; selection; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; Sagarmatha; national; national park; National-park; park; Nepal; resource; predators; predator; ecological; impact; region; community; structure; number; research; population; status; density; densities; wild; prey species; prey-species; species; Himalayan; tahr; musk; musk-deer; deer; game; birds; diet; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; awareness; co-existence; ungulates; ungulate; Human; using; areas; area; monitoring; transect; Hair; identification; scat; attack; patterns; sighting; 1760; populations; birth; Male; Female; young; domestic; domestic livestock; 120; scats; yak; Dog; pika; wildlife; Seasons; winter; horse; study; cover; land; predation; Pressure; development; strategy; threatened; threatened species; threatened-species; conflicts; conflict; people; control; husbandry; compensation; reintroduction; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; free ranging
Abstract Predators have significant ecological impacts on the region's prey-predator dynamic and community structure through their numbers and prey selection. During April-December 2007, I conducted a research in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park (SNP) to: i) explore population status and density of wild prey species; Himalayan tahr, musk deer and game birds, ii) investigate diet of the snow leopard and to estimate prey selection by snow leopard, iii) identify the pattern of livestock depredation by snow leopard, its mitigation, and raise awareness through outreach program, and identify the challenge and opportunities on conservation snow leopard and its co-existence with wild ungulates and the human using the areas of the SNP. Methodology of my research included vantage points and regular monitoring from trails for Himalayan tahr, fixed line transect with belt drive method for musk deer and game birds, and microscopic hair identification in snow leopard's scat to investigate diet of snow leopard and to estimate prey selection. Based on available evidence and witness accounts of snow leopard attack on livestock, the patterns of livestock depredation were assessed. I obtained 201 sighting of Himalayan tahr (1760 individuals) and estimated 293 populations in post-parturient period (April-June), 394 in birth period (July -October) and 195 November- December) in rutting period. In average, ratio of male to females was ranged from 0.34 to 0.79 and ratio of kid to female was 0.21-0.35, and yearling to kid was 0.21- 0.47. The encounter rate for musk deer was 1.06 and density was 17.28/km2. For Himalayan monal, the encounter rate was 2.14 and density was 35.66/km2. I obtained 12 sighting of snow cock comprising 69 individual in Gokyo. The ratio of male to female was 1.18 and young to female was 2.18. Twelve species (8 species of wild and 4 species of domestic livestock) were identified in the 120 snow leopard scats examined. In average, snow leopard predated most frequently on Himalayan tahr and it was detected in 26.5% relative frequency of occurrence while occurred in 36.66% of all scats, then it was followed by musk deer (19.87%), yak (12.65%), cow (12.04%), dog (10.24%), unidentified mammal (3.61%), woolly hare (3.01%), rat sp. (2.4%), unidentified bird sp. (1.8%), pika (1.2%), and shrew (0.6%) (Table 5.8 ). Wild species were present in 58.99% of scats whereas domestic livestock with dog were present in 40.95% of scats. Snow leopard predated most frequently on wildlife species in three seasons; spring (61.62%), autumn (61.11%) and winter (65.51%), and most frequently on domestic species including dog in summer season (54.54%). In term of relative biomass consumed, in average, Himalayan tahr was the most important prey species contributed 26.27% of the biomass consumed. This was followed by yak (22.13%), cow (21.06%), musk deer (11.32%), horse (10.53%), wooly hare (1.09%), rat (0.29%), pika (0.14%) and shrew (0.07%). In average, domestic livestock including dog were contributed more biomass in the diet of snow leopard comprising 60.8% of the biomass consumed whilst the wild life species comprising 39.19%. The annual prey consumption by a snow leopard (based on 2 kg/day) was estimated to be three Himalayan tahr, seven musk deer, five wooly hare, four rat sp., two pika, one shrew and four livestock. In the present study, the highest frequency of attack was found during April to June and lowest to July to November. The day of rainy and cloudy was the more vulnerable to livestock depredation. Snow leopard attacks occurred were the highest at near escape cover such as shrub land and cliff. Both predation pressure on tahr and that on livestock suggest that the development of effective conservation strategies for two threatened species (predator and prey) depends on resolving conflicts between people and predators. Recently, direct control of free – ranging livestock, good husbandry and compensation to shepherds may reduce snow leopard – human conflict. In long term solution, the reintroduction of blue sheep at the higher altitudes could also “buffer” predation on livestock.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program. Forum of Natural Resource Managers, Nepal. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1076 Serial 887
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Shrestha, B., Aihartza, J., Kindlmann
Title Diet and prey selection by snow leopards in the Nepalese Himalayas Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-18
Keywords
Abstract Visual attractiveness and rarity often results in large carnivores being adopted as flagship

species for stimulating conservation awareness. Their hunting behaviour and prey selection

can affect the population dynamics of their prey, which in turn affects the population dynamics

of these large carnivores. Therefore, our understanding of their trophic ecology and foraging

strategies is important for predicting their population dynamics and consequently for

developing effective conservation programs. Here we concentrate on an endangered species

of carnivores, the snow leopard, in the Himalayas. Most previous studies on snow leopard

diet lack information on prey availability and/or did not genetically check, whether the

identification of snow leopard scats is correct, as their scats are similar to those of other

carnivores. We studied the prey of snow leopard in three Himalayan regions in Nepal

(Sagarmatha National Park (SNP), Lower Mustang (LM) and Upper Manang (UM) in the

Annapurna Conservation Area, during winter and summer in 2014�2016. We collected 268

scats along 139.3 km linear transects, of which 122 were genetically confirmed to belong to

snow leopard. Their diet was identified by comparing hairs in scats with our reference collection

of the hairs of potential prey. We determined prey availability using 32�48 camera-traps

and 4,567 trap nights. In the SNP, the most frequent prey in snow leopard faeces was the

Himalayan tahr in both winter and summer. In LM and UM, its main prey was blue sheep in

winter, but yak and goat in summer. In terms of relative biomass consumed, yak was the

main prey everywhere in both seasons. Snow leopard preferred large prey and avoided

small prey in summer but not in winter, with regional differences. It preferred domestic to

wild prey only in winter, and in SNP. Unlike most other studies carried out in the same area,

our study uses genetic methods for identifying the source of the scat. Studies solely based

on visual identification of samples may be strongly biased. Diet studies based on frequency

of occurrence of prey tend to overestimate the importance of small prey, which may be consumed

more often, but contribute less energy than large prey. However, even assessments

based on prey biomass are unlikely to be accurate as we do not know whether the actual

size of the prey consumed corresponds to the average size used to calculate the biomass

eaten. For example, large adults may be too difficult to catch and therefore mostly young animals are consumed, whose weight is much lower. We show that snow leopard consumes

a diverse range of prey, which varies both regionally and seasonally. We conclude that in

order to conserve snow leopards it is also necessary to conserve its main wild species of

prey, which will reduce the incidence of losses of livestock.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1476
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Shrestha, B., Kindlmann, P.
Title Implications of landscape genetics and connectivity of snow leopard in the Nepalese Himalayas for its conservation. Type Scientific Report
Year 2020 Publication Nature Research Abbreviated Journal
Volume 10 Issue 19853 Pages 1-11
Keywords
Abstract The snow leopard is one of the most endangered large mammals.

Its population, already low, is declining, most likely due to the

consequences of human activity, including a reduction in the size and

number of suitable habitats. With climate change, habitat loss may

escalate, because of an upward shift in the tree line and concomitant

loss of the alpine zone, where the snow leopard lives. Migration between

suitable areas, therefore, is important because a decline in abundance

in these areas may result in inbreeding, fragmentation of populations,

reduction in genetic variation due to habitat fragmentation, loss of

connectivity, bottlenecks or genetic drift. Here we use our data

collected in Nepal to determine the areas suitable for snow leopards, by

using habitat suitability maps, and describe the genetic structure of

the snow leopard within and between these areas. We also determine the

influence of landscape features on the genetic structure of its

populations and reveal corridors connecting suitable areas. We conclude

that it is necessary to protect these natural corridors to maintain the

possibility of snow leopards' migration between suitable areas, which

will enable gene flow between the diminishing populations and thus

maintain a viable metapopulation of snow leopards.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1628
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Shrestha, B., Kindlmann, P.
Title Interactions between the Himalayan tahr, livestock and snow leopards in the Sagarmatha National Park Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Himalayan Biodiversity in the Changing World Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor Springer, dordrecht
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1305
Permanent link to this record