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Author (up) Janeč ka, J.E., Munkhtsog, B., Jackson, R.M., Naranbaatar, G., Mallon, D.P. & Murphy, W.J. openurl 
  Title Comparison of noninvasive genetic and camera-trapping techniques for surveying snow leopards Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 92 Issue 4 Pages 771-783  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia) is widely but sparsely distributed throughout the mountainous regions of central Asia. Detailed information on the status and abundance of the snow leopard is limited because of the logistical challenges faced when working in the rugged terrain it occupies, along with its secretive nature. Camera-trapping and noninvasive genetic techniques have been used successfully to survey this felid. We compared noninvasive genetic and camera-trapping snow leopard surveys in the Gobi Desert of Mongolia. We collected 180 putative snow leopard scats from 3 sites during an 8-day period along 37.74 km of transects. We then conducted a 65-day photographic survey at 1 of these sites, approximately 2 months after scat collection. In the site where both techniques were used noninvasive genetics detected 5 individuals in only 2 days of fieldwork compared to 7 individuals observed in the 65-day camera-trapping session. Estimates of population size from noninvasive genetics ranged between 16 and 19 snow leopards in the 314.3-km2 area surveyed, yielding densities of 4.9–5.9 individuals/100 km2. In comparison, the population estimate from the 65-day photographic survey was 4 individuals (adults only) within the 264-km2 area, for a density estimate of 1.5 snow leopards/100 km2. Higher density estimates from the noninvasive genetic survey were due partly to an inability to determine age and exclude subadults, reduced spatial distribution of sampling points as a consequence of collecting scats along linear transects, and deposition of scats by multiple snow leopards on common sites. Resulting differences could inflate abundance estimated from noninvasive genetic surveys and prevent direct comparison of densities derived from the 2 approaches unless appropriate adjustments are made to the study design.  
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  Publisher American Society of Mammalogists Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DOI: 10.1644/10-MAMM-A-036.1; URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1644/10-MAMM-A-036.1 Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1351  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Mallon, D. url  openurl
  Title Trophy Hunting of Cites-Listed Species in Central Asia Type Report
  Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Executive Summary:

The report is part of a project aiming to strengthen capacities to implement CITES, especially in

Central Asia and to satisfy the CITES‐related requirements of trading partners, to prevent

overexploitation and to ensure legal international trade in wild fauna and flora does not exceed

sustainable levels. The objective is to enhance the policies and regulations concerning trophy

hunting in selected range States of the Argali Ovis ammon: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian

Federation, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan and to provide a framework for the establishment of

sustainable hunting programmes that support conservation. This report is focused on the relevance

of trophy hunting for conservation and associated local livelihoods.

Sustainable use of biological diversity is an integral part of the Convention on Biodiversity (1992) and

is seen as a valuable tool in conserving biological diversity. The Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines

(AAPG) set out the basis for sustainable use of natural resources. The IUCN SSC1 Guiding Principles on

Trophy Hunting as a Tool for Creating Conservation Incentives, and the European Charter on Hunting

and Biodiversity provide further guidance on the sustainability of trophy hunting, including on highly

threatened species. The International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC) together

with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has also developed Best

Practice Guidelines for trophy hunting.

All five project countries are Parties to CITES, except Tajikistan, which has begun the accession

process. Argali are the focus of the trophy hunting in the region and they represent the most

expensive trophy in the five project countries. Other CITES‐listed hunting species are Brown Bear

Ursus arctos, Wolf Canis lupus, Musk Deer Moschus moschiferus, Eurasian Lynx Lynx lynx (all mainly

in Russia) and Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis undulata. Markhor Capra falconeri and Urial Ovis

orientalis have also been hunted at times but are not the object of regular trophy hunting

programmes at present. Other widely hunted species are not listed in the CITES Appendices.

A recent analysis by TRAFFIC of the CITES trade database showed that 10 245 hunting trophy items

from species listed in the CITES Appendices were exported from the project countries between 2000

and 2010. Almost all trophy items consisted of Argali, Brown Bear and Wolf. Most were exported

from Russia (9473 trophies), with smaller numbers from Tajikistan (705), Kyrgyzstan (668), and

Kazakhstan (126), and 13 from Uzbekistan.

In the region, wildlife is generally the property of the State, which awards rights to use it to

individuals or other entities. National legislation covering hunting and wildlife protection may refer

to sustainable use but this is undefined. The legal rights of local communities are also not generally

specified. FAO and CIC produced a review of national legislation that set out in detail the basic

principles of sustainable wildlife management laws (2008). One of the main findings was that

legislative frameworks in the region frequently consisted of different legal instruments that were not

always harmonized and sometimes overlapped. In some cases, there was also a lack of institutional

clarity, with overlapping jurisdictions among different agencies.

Poaching for meat and trophies or commercial products is a significant factor across the whole

region, negatively affecting all the main hunting species, as well as protected species. Wild

populations have been reduced, sometimes drastically so. Poaching of Argali and other mountain

ungulates may be carried out by military or border personnel and is not restricted to areas outside

formal nature reserves: indeed, law enforcement and protected area staff are sometimes complicit

in illegal hunting, driven in part by the very low salaries. There are numerous recent examples of

poaching and illegal trade in trophies of CITES‐listed species. The actual level of illegal off‐take is

unknown. Known cases may represent a very small fraction of the real total. The wildlife

conservation sector is under‐resourced across the region with a lack of funding, trained personnel,

transport and other equipment severely limiting the effectiveness of anti‐poaching efforts.

Memoranda of Understanding under the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS MoUs) and their

associated action plans for Saiga Saiga tatarica and Bukhara Deer Cervus elaphus bactrianus have

proven to be effective instruments in facilitating species recovery. A CMS Single Species Action Plan

for Argali is in preparation (Roettger & Singh, in prep) and will provide a framework for conservation.

Trophy hunting in the region is predominantly organized on a commercial basis. Community‐based

hunting initiatives in the region are in their infancy and face some legal and institutional obstacles.

There are however promising developments: for example, five community‐based NGOs in Tajikistan

are managing wildlife in legally assigned areas and three of them have hosted hunting clients (on

non‐CITES species). Well‐developed community‐based trophy hunting programmes operate in

Pakistan, targeted at Markhor Capra falconeri which is listed in CITES Appendix I, and in Namibia,

which is widely seen as a leader in such programmes, and while the specific conditions and sociopolitical

background of both differ in several ways from those in the region, they nonetheless

provide instructive guidance on the principles of successful community conservancy organization.

There is an extensive literature on trophy hunting, its potential to contribute to conservation of

biodiversity and local livelihoods, and the potential negative effects of selective harvesting on

species. The consensus view seems to be that selective harvest of trophy‐age males does not impact

negatively in the short term, if only a low proportion of the available trophy‐age individuals are

harvested, but uncontrolled harvest can lead to a decline in horn size and thus trophy quality, as well

as have negative demographic effects. Trophy hunting programmes raise substantial revenues in

some African countries, and in the best cases significant sums are received at community or

conservancy level. However, this is not universally the case and inequitable benefit sharing remains

a major challenge to be overcome. Good governance is an essential requirement when developing

hunting and other forms of community based management initiative.

A possible decline in size of Argali trophies in Kyrgyzstan has been reported and determining

whether this is actually the case, and the causes, is a priority. Standardized monitoring, involvement

of independent experts, transparency in quota setting and allocation of licences are all seen as

prerequisites of well‐managed and sustainable hunting operations. Allocation of long‐term leases for

concessions is needed to motivate managers to invest in anti‐poaching and other conservation

measures and remove the temptation for short‐term profit that threatens the sustainability of the

resource.

Developing all forms of Community‐based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) – trophy hunting

and tourism – is also recommended. As the concept is still new to many parts of the region, and the

legal‐political background is not always sympathetic, building on examples of existing community

conservancies (in Tajikistan) or where there is an administrative basis for local management of

resources (Kyrgyzstan), is likely to be effective. Ensuring that communities and conservancies are

legally empowered to manage and utilise wildlife and to receive revenues for such use is a basic

requirement.

Recommendations on good practice are set out in several publications and salient points relevant to the region are highlighted.
 
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1415  
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Author (up) Mallon, D. url  openurl
  Title An early record of snow leopard in Myanmar Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Cat News Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 39 Issue Autumn Pages 24  
  Keywords snow leopard, Myanmar  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1253  
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Author (up) Mallon, D. url  openurl
  Title Snow Leopard in Kanji Wildlife Reserve, Ladakh Type Miscellaneous
  Year 1993 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume xi Issue Pages  
  Keywords Kanji; Ladakh; India; surveys; scrapes; distribution; research; transects; browse; 4680  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Islt Place of Publication Seattle Editor  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Full Text at URLJournal Title: Snowline Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 455 Serial 644  
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Author (up) Mallon, D. url  openurl
  Title Snow Leopards in Northern Hunza Type Journal Article
  Year 1987 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract In fall 1987 an expedition from Operation Raleigh went to Hunza in Pakistan. In promoting expeditions for young people from many countries. the London-based organization aims to carry out scientific. community. and adventure projects all over the world. One objective of the 40-strong team based at Passu in northern India was a preliminary survey of the snow leopard and large ungulates.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1354  
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Author (up) Mallon, D. url  openurl
  Title The Snow Leopard, Panthera uncia, in Mongolia Type Journal Article
  Year 1984 Publication Int.Ped.Book of Snow Leopards Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 4 Issue Pages 3-9  
  Keywords Mongolia; snow-leopard; gobi; distribution; status; asia; herders; snow leopard; browse; 950  
  Abstract In the International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards 3, Blomqvist and Sten notes (1982) that no information had been recieved on the snow leopard in Mongolia. The present paper sets out to repair that omission by summarising the information in print on snow leopards in Mongolia and giving a brief account of its distribution in the country. This is essentially a review paper and it is hoped that more precise data may be obtained from fieldwork carried out in the future by Mongolian zoologist. The author worked in Mongolia for two years 1975-1977, and during that time collected information on mammals of Mongolia. Information on the snow leopard was obtained from colleagues at the State University of Mongolia; from zoologists and hunters; from herdsmen and local informants from all parts of the country and from three journeys made by the author: to the eastern Gobi Altai; the Khangai mountains, and a 2000 km journey through western Altai. In this paper, the term “Mongolia” refers to the territory of the Mongolian peoples Republic  
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  Notes Full text available at URLDocument Type: English Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 114 Serial 643  
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Author (up) Mallon, D. url  openurl
  Title The snow leopard in Ladakh Type Journal Article
  Year 1984 Publication International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 4 Issue Pages 23-37  
  Keywords Ladakh; India; livestock; herders; tracking; tracks; surveys; sign; distribution; predator; prey; herder; mortality; conservation; status; browse; 2380  
  Abstract Reports on 1 summer survey and four winter surveys covering some 3100 km in Ladakh, India. Reports on snow leopard sign commonly found, distribution, prey, attacks on livestock and peoples reaction, mortality factors and conservation status. Suggest recomendations for preventing unnecessary killing of snow leopards and estimates population of 100 to 200 snow leopards in Ladakh  
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  Notes Full text available at URL Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 78 Serial 642  
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Author (up) Mallon, D. P., Jackson, R. M. url  openurl
  Title A downlist is not a demotion: Red List status and reality Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Oryx Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-5  
  Keywords Cryptic, IUCN Red List, Panthera uncia, population estimate, snow leopard, species assessment  
  Abstract Assessments of biodiversity status are needed to

track trends, and the IUCN Red List has become the accepted

global standard for documenting the extinction

risk of species. Obtaining robust data on population size is

an essential component of any assessment of a species� status,

including assessments for the IUCN Red List. Obtaining

such estimates is complicated by methodological and

logistical issues, which are more pronounced in the case of

cryptic species, such as the snow leopard Panthera uncia.

Estimates of the total population size of this species have,

to date, been based on little more than guesstimates, but a

comprehensive summary of recent field research indicates

that the conservation status of the snow leopard may be

less dire than previously thought. A revised categorization,

from Endangered to Vulnerable, on the IUCN Red List was

proposed but met some opposition, as did a recent, similar

recategorization of the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca.

Possible factors motivating such attitudes are discussed.

Downlisting on the IUCN Red List indicates that the species

concerned is further from extinction, and is always to be

welcomed, whether resulting from successful conservation

intervention or improved knowledge of status and trends.

Celebrating success is important to reinforce the message

that conservation works, and to incentivize donors.
 
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1460  
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Author (up) Mallon, D., Kulikov, M. url  openurl
  Title Transboundary Snow Leopard Conservation in Central Asia: Report of the FFI/CMS Workshop, 1-2 December 2014 Type Report
  Year 2015 Publication Fauna & Flora International Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author In Partnership with Convention on Migratory Species Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1419  
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Author (up) Mallon, D.P. url  openurl
  Title Status and Conservation of Large Mammals in Ladakh Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 101-119  
  Keywords Ladakh; India; snow-leopard; wolf; Canis-lupus; ibex; brown-bear; bear; Ursus-arctos; parks; reserves; hunting; herders; livestock; snow leopard; browse; canis; lupis; ursus; arctos; 800  
  Abstract The distribution and status of large mammals was surveyed in a 15 000 km2 study area in Ladakh, India. Snow leopard Panthera uncia, wolf Canis lupus, ibex Capra ibex and bharal Pseudois nayaur have an almost continuous distribution throughout; Ladakh urial Ovis vignei, Tibetan argali Ovis ammon, wild ass Equus kiang and brown bear Ursus arctos have a limited distribution. Snow leopard prefer lower altitudes and rocky, undisturbed areas. Ibex and bharal occupy similar rocky habitats but their ranges are mostly separate, with a small area of overlap. The Ladakh urial shows signs of recovery from an earlier decline. Natural resources are widely used for fuel, fodder and grazing, but favourable factors include a low human population, low level of hunting and the existence of some uninhabited and undisturbed areas. A comprehensive Protected Area Network has been proposed.  
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  Notes Publisher:ELSEVIER SCI LTD, OXFORD Document Type: English Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 175 Serial 647  
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