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Author (up) Khatiwada, J.R. & Chalise, M.K.
Title Important fauna of Himalaya around Wetland Type Book Chapter
Year 2007 Publication Himalayan Wetlands: Risk, Challenges and Opportunities Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 52-58
Keywords
Abstract Wetlands are classified according to landscape where they are found. For

example they are high altitude wetlands, mountain wetlands. When said high

altitude wetlands, they are lakes, ponds, rivers, glaciers, glacial lakes,

meadows, etc. in high altitude areas. Bhandari (2005) has defined “High

Altitude Wetlands are those types of wetlands which are found above the

elevation of 3,000 masl”. They are generally above the tree line.
Address
Corporate Author Changwon, Ramsar Wetlands Center Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication South Korea Editor Bhandari B.B. & Gea J.J.
Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes p. 52-58. Bhandari B.B. & Gea J.J. (Eds.). Himalayan Wetlands: Risk, Challenges and Opportunities. Changwon, Ramsar Wetlands Center, South Korea. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1321
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Author (up) Khatiwada, J.R. & Chalise, M.K.
Title Status of snow leopard and conflict perception in Kangchenjunga Conservation Area, Eastern Nepal Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Nepalese Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 1 Issue 1 Pages 1-8
Keywords Uncia uncia, Kangchenjunga Conservation Area, livestock depredation, blue sheep
Abstract Kangchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA) is situated in the Taplejung district at the north-eastern region of Nepal. Livestock keeping is the main activity of people for making a living amidst a conflict with snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Each year snow leopard kills a number of livestock resulting significant economic losses for the poor people living in this remote area. Unless the people – snow leopard conflicts is well understood and appropriate conflict management activities are implemented, the long run co-existence between people and snow leopard –especially the existence of snow leopard in this part of the world–will be in question. This has now become an utmost important as the aspiration of the people for economic development has risen significantly and the area has been open to tourism. Study was done by counting snow leopard signs walking systematically in total 18 snow leopard sign transects covering 18.01 km in length in three sites, i.e. Lonak, Khambachen and Dudhpokhari of the Conservation Area. The average sign density was 12.63/km. The livestock depredation by snow leopard for one year (2005-06) was studied by interviewing the herders to understand the responsible and specific bio-physical and economic factors. The study revealed that sub-adult yaks were mostly hunted by snow leopard. Cattle's' winter (December-April) pastures are most vulnerable sites for predation. Presence of bushes, forest and boulders and rugged mountain crevices make good hides for snow leopard. The study also showed that a lax animal guarding system was significantly responsible for high livestock depredation by snow leopard. Blue sheep was observed by walking in selected trails and from vantage points. A total of 354 individual sheep of different age and sex of 14 different herds were recorded during the study period. The study showed that improvement in livestock guarding system should be adopted as the most important activity. However despite the importance of livestock in the KCA it is still not well understood why the herders neglect for proper livestock guarding. Proper guarding system required in winter pastures to reduce the depredation pressure.
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes September Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1319
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Author (up) Khatiwada, J.R.; Chalise, M.K.; Kyes, R.
Title Survey of Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) and Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur) populations in the Kangchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA), Nepal. Final report Type Report
Year 2007 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-13
Keywords survey; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; populations; population; conservation; area; Nepal; Report; study; information; management; system; Slims; relative abundance; abundance; transects; transect; length; sign; scrapes; scrape; 20; feces; scent; pugmarks; hairs; Hair; using; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; patterns; herders; herder; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; Animals; Animal
Abstract This study was carried out in the Kangchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA), Eastern Nepal from Feb – Nov 2007. We used the Snow Leopard Information Management System, SLIMS (second order survey technique) to determine the relative abundance of snow leopard in the upper part of KCA. Altogether, 36 transects (total length of 15.21 km) were laid down in the major three blocks of KCA. 104 Signs (77 scrapes, 20 feces, 2 Scent mark, 3 Pugmarks and 2 hairs) were recorded. Fixed-point count method was applied for blue sheep from appropriate vantage points. We counted total individual in each herd using 8x42 binocular and 15-60x spotting scope. A total of 43 herds and 1102 individuals were observed in the area. The standard SLIMS questionnaire was conducted to find out relevant information on livestock depredation patterns. Out of 35 households surveyed in KCA, 48% of herders lost livestock due to snow leopards. A total of 21 animals were reportedly lost due to snow leopards from August to September 2007.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1070 Serial 533
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