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Author (up) Anwar, M., Jackson, R., Nadeem, M., Janecka, J., Hussain, S., Beg, M., Muhammad, G., and Qayyum, M. url  openurl
  Title Food habits of the snow leopard Panthera uncia (Schreber, 1775) in Baltistan, Northern Pakistan Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication European Journal of Wildlife Research Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 3 March Pages 1-7  
  Keywords Himalayas, Karakoram, Scat, Diet, Hair, Livestock, Biomass  
  Abstract The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) inhabits the high, remote mountains of Pakistan from where very little information is available on prey use of this species. Our study describes the food habits of the snow leopard in the Himalayas and Karakoram mountain ranges in Baltistan, Pakistan. Ninety-five putrid snow leopard scats were collected from four sites in Baltistan. Of these, 49 scats were genetically confirmed to have originated from snow leopards. The consumed prey was identified on the basis of morphological characteristics of hairs recovered from the scats. It was found that most of the biomass consumed (70%) was due to domestic livestock viz. sheep (23%), goat (16%), cattle (10%), yak (7%), and cattle–yak hybrids (14%). Only 30% of the biomass was due to wild species, namely Siberian ibex (21%), markhor (7%), and birds (2%). Heavy predation on domestic livestock appeared to be the likely cause of conflict with the local inhabitants. Conservation initiatives should focus on mitigating this conflict by minimizing livestock losses.  
  Address  
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  Publisher Springer Berlin / Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1612-4642 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1304  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Janecka, J. E., Alves, P., Karmacharya, D., Samsel, N., Cheng, E., Tallmom, D., Schwartz, M. url  openurl
  Title Wildlife Genetics in Mountainous Rugged Asian Landscapes: Methods, Applications and Examples Type Book Chapter
  Year 2013 Publication Wildlife Research Techniques in rugged Mountainous Asian Landscapes Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 44-91  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1429  
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Author (up) Janecka, J. E., Jackson, R., Munkhtsog, B., Murphy, W. J. url  openurl
  Title Characterization of 9 microsatellites and primers in snow leopards and a species-specific PCR assay for identifying noninvasive samples Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Conservation Genetic Resource Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 369:373  
  Keywords Microsatellites,Cytochrome b, Snow Leopard, Noninvasive genetics, Individual identification  
  Abstract Molecular markers that can effectively identify noninvasively collected samples and provide genetic

information are critical for understanding the distribution, status, and ecology of snow leopards (Panthera uncia). However, the low DNA quantity and quality in many

noninvasive samples such as scats makes PCR amplification and genotyping challenging. We therefore designed primers for 9 microsatellites loci previously isolated in the

domestic cat (Felis catus) specifically for snow leopard studies using noninvasive samples. The loci showed moderate levels of variation in two Mongolian snow leopard

populations. Combined with seven other loci that we previously described, they have sufficient variation (He = 0.504, An = 3.6) for individual identification and

population structure analysis. We designed a species species specific PCR assay using cytochrome b for identification of unknown snow leopard samples. These molecular markers

facilitate in depth studies to assess distribution, abundance, population structure, and landscape connectivity of this endangered species.

endangered species
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1427  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Janecka, J. E., Jackson, R., Munkhtsog, B., Murphy, W. J. url  openurl
  Title Characterization of 9 microsatellites and primers in snow leopards and a species-specific PCR assay for identifying noninvasive samples Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Conservation Genetic Resource Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 369:373  
  Keywords Microsatellites,Cytochrome b, Snow Leopard, Noninvasive genetics, Individual identification  
  Abstract Molecular markers that can effectively identify noninvasively collected samples and provide genetic

information are critical for understanding the distribution, status, and ecology of snow leopards (Panthera uncia). However, the low DNA quantity and quality in many

noninvasive samples such as scats makes PCR amplification and genotyping challenging. We therefore designed primers for 9 microsatellites loci previously isolated in the

domestic cat (Felis catus) specifically for snow leopard studies using noninvasive samples. The loci showed moderate levels of variation in two Mongolian snow leopard

populations. Combined with seven other loci that we previously described, they have sufficient variation (He = 0.504, An = 3.6) for individual identification and

population structure analysis. We designed a species species specific PCR assay using cytochrome b for identification of unknown snow leopard samples. These molecular markers

facilitate in depth studies to assess distribution, abundance, population structure, and landscape connectivity of this endangered species.
 
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1428  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Janecka; J.E.; Jackson, R.; Yuquang, Z.; Diqiang, L.; Munkhtsog, B.; Buckley-Beason, V.; Murphy, W.J. url  openurl
  Title Population monitoring of snow leopards using noninvasive collection of scat samples: a pilot study Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2008 Publication Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 11 Issue Pages 401-411  
  Keywords snow leopard; genetics; scat; noninvasive; survey.  
  Abstract The endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia occurs in rugged, high-altitude regions of Central Asia. However, information on the status of this felid is limited in many areas. We conducted a pilot study to optimize molecular markers for the analysis of snow leopard scat samples and to examine the feasibility of using noninvasive genetic methods for monitoring this felid. We designed snow leopard-specific primers for seven microsatellite loci that amplified shorter segments and avoided flanking sequences shared with repetitive elements. By redesigning primers we maximized genotyping success and minimized genotyping errors. In addition, we tested a Y chromosome-marker for sex identification and designed a panel of mitochondrial DNA primers for examining genetic diversity of snow leopards using scat samples. We collected scats believed to be from snow leopards in three separate geographic regions including north-western India, central China and southern Mongolia. We observed snow leopard scats in all three sites despite only brief 2-day surveys in each area. There was a high rate of species misidentification in the field with up to 54% of snow leopard scats misidentified as red fox. The high rate of field misidentification suggests sign surveys incorporating scat likely overestimate snow leopard abundance. The highest ratio of snow leopard scats was observed in Ladakh (India) and South Gobi (Mongolia), where four and five snow leopards were detected, respectively. Our findings describe a species-specific molecular panel for analysis of snow leopard scats, and highlight the efficacy of noninvasive genetic surveys for monitoring snow leopards. These methods enable large-scale noninvasive studies that will provide information critical for conservation of snow leopards.  
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  Notes Supplemental information may be found at http:snowleopardnetwork.org/bibliography/JaneckaSupplemental2008.pdf Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 883 Serial 488  
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Author (up) Rodgers, T. W.,Janecka, J. E. url  openurl
  Title Applications and techniques for non-invasive faecal genetics research in felid conservation Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Conservation . Elusive species . Faecal DNA . Felidae . Non-invasive genetics  
  Abstract Non-invasive genetic techniques utilising DNA extracted from faeces hold great promise for felid conservation research. These methods can be used to establish species

distributions, model habitat requirements, analyse diet, estimate abundance and population density, and form the basis for population, landscape and conservation genetic analyses. Due to the elusive nature of most felid species, non-invasive genetic methods have the potential to provide

valuable data that cannot be obtained with traditional observational or capture techniques. Thus, these methods are particularly valuable for research and conservation of endangered

felid species. Here, we review recent studies that use non-invasive faecal genetic techniques to survey or study wild felids; provide an overview of field, laboratory and analysis techniques; and offer suggestions on how future non-invasive genetic studies can be expanded or improved to more effectively support conservation.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1430  
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Author (up) Rosen, T. Hussain, S. Mohammad, G. Jackson, R. Janecka, J, E. Michel, S. url  openurl
  Title Reconciling Sustainable Development of Mountain Communities With Large Carnivore Conservation Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Mountain Research and Development Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 32(3) Pages 286-293  
  Keywords Carnivores; conflict; conservation; incentives; livestock; insurance scheme; community empowerment; Pakistan  
  Abstract While the world is becoming increasingly interconnected and interdependent, physically and culturally, the wildlife of remote mountain regions is being affected both positively and negatively by such interconnectedness. In the case of snow leopards, the conservation impact has been largely, and rather unexpectedly, positive: Species-focused conservation projects, such as Project Snow Leopard (PSL) in

Gilgit-Baltistan, remain mainly externally driven initiatives. PSL, initiated as a small pilot project in 1998, has relied on an approach that includes the use of an insurance scheme, the deployment of mitigation measures, and the empowerment of local governance. This approach has been successful in

reducing the conflict with snow leopards and has built greater tolerance toward them. PSL is managed by local communities and cofinanced by them. PSL communities throughout the region are bearing the burden of carnivore conservation, and they are unwittingly subsidizing their populations by ‘‘feeding’’

them their livestock even though they are an economic threat to them. In this article, we argue that external intervention in the form of efforts that help alleviate the consequences of conflict through local empowerment have had a positive impact on the local mountain societies. We also show that such interventions have resulted in tangible conservation results, with the number of snow leopards staying at least stable. Our experience also shows that while the incentive component is critical, it is also part of a larger approach—one that includes developing and supporting local governance structures, improving access to education, and offering a range of tools to reduce the conflict that can be implemented

locally. Finally, we suggest that investing in this approach— one that recognizes the species and local-context complexities surrounding the implementation of conservation incentives—can continue to inform international practices and guidelines for reducing human–wildlife conflicts worldwide.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1387  
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