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Author (up) Baral N.; Stern, M.; Heinen, J.T. url  openurl
  Title Integrated conservation and development project life cycles in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal: Is development overpowering conservation? Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Biodiversity Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages 2903-2917  
  Keywords annapurna; Biodiversity conservation; community-based; conservation; Gender; management; Nepal; protected area; development; project; annapurna conservation area; Annapurna-Conservation-Area; area  
  Abstract The merits of integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs), which aim to provide development incentives to citizens in return for conservation behaviors, have long been debated in the literature. Some of the most common critiques suggest that conservation activities tend to be strongly overpowered by development activities. We studied this assertion through participant observation and archival analysis of five Conservation Area Management Committees (CAMCs) in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal. Committee activities were categorized as conservation activities (policy development and conservation implementation), development activities (infrastructure, health care, education, economic development, and sanitation), or activities related to institutional strengthening (administrative development and capacity building activities). Greater longevity of each ICDP was associated with greater conservation activity in relation to development activities. Project life cycles progressed from a focus on development activities in their early stages, through a transitional period of institutional strengthening, and toward a longer-term focus that roughly balanced conservation and development activities. Results suggest that the ICDP concept, as practiced in ACA, has been successful at building capacity for and interest in conservation amongst local communities. However, success has come over a period of nearly a decade, suggesting that prior conclusions about ICDP failures may have been based on unrealistic expectations of the time needed to influence behavioral changes in target populations.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 938 Serial 117  
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Author (up) Heinen, J.T.; Leisure, B. openurl 
  Title A new look at Himalayan Fur Trade Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Oryx Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages 231-238  
  Keywords fur; trade; coat; pelt; poaching; hunting; hunter; browse; 2970  
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  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 198 Serial 376  
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Author (up) Heinen, J.T.; Mehta, J. url  openurl
  Title Emerging issues in legal and procedural aspects of buffer zone management with case studies from Nepal Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of Environment and Development Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 45-67  
  Keywords conservation; legal; management; Nepal; park; participatory; protected area; regulations  
  Abstract Buffer zones have been used as part of larger integrated conservation development programs to provide the benefits of ecological buffering of protected areas and socioeconomic buffering of neighboring communities. The authors explore the legal and managerial development of buffer zones internationally and with the passage of a conservation amendment in Nepal. A review of Nepal's buffer zone policies and several ongoing projects shows that there are several potential inherent problems. As written, regulations tend to expand the authority of the state by imposing restrictions in populated areas formerly not under control of park officials. Some participatory rights are provided to citizens, but management authority largely remains top down from the standpoint of local users. The authors question whether the managerial and research capacities exist to monitor buffer zones for their effectiveness both for conservation and development purposes and make several recommendations to improve implementation.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 939 Serial 378  
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Author (up) Heinen, J.T.; Metha, J.C. url  openurl
  Title Conceptual and legal issues in the designation and management of conservation areas in Nepal Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Environmental Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 26 Issue Pages 21-29  
  Keywords Nepal; conservation; protected area; management; browse; 70  
  Abstract The modern era of wildlife and protected area conservation in Nepal began in 1973 with the passage of comprehensive legislation, and has evolved very quickly as new priorities and problems have emerged. Here we explore the legal and managerial development of conservation areas, a recently-defined category of protected area designed to promote conservation through local-level participation and development. A review of the Conservation Area Management Regulations of 1996 shows that there are several potential problems inherent in this designation. As written, the regulations move power from the government to organizations under governmental contract. Thus, management authority largely remains top-down from the standpoint of local users. We also question how well the designation will protect some sensitive wildlife species, since organizations do not have law enforcement authority under Nepalese legislation.

Despite these concerns, there have been several successful conservation area programmes in existence in Nepal since the 1980s and most of the issues addressed are surmountable with the current regulations, providing that several criteria are met. We propose that His Majesty's Government and organizations under contract develop more definitive methods of disbursing funds for local-level projects, and institute social impact assessments. In addition, more attention must be paid to wildlife law enforcement; independent assessments of important wild populations and unique habitats are needed. Finally, we discuss some broader issues that should be better addressed in Nepal and elsewhere, including cross-sectoral coordination within the government.
 
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  Notes Document Type: English Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 361 Serial 377  
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Author (up) Mehta, J.; Heinen, J.T. url  openurl
  Title Does community-based conservation shape favorable attitudes among locals? An empirical study from Nepal Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 165-177  
  Keywords community-based; conservation; attitudes; attitude; local; study; Nepal  
  Abstract Like many developing countries, Nepal has adopted a community-based conservation (CBC) approach in recent years to manage its protected areas mainly in response to poor park-people relations. Among other things, under this approach the government has created new “people-oriented” conservation areas, formed and devolved legal authority to grassroots-level institutions to manage local resources, fostered infrastructure development, promoted tourism, and provided income-generating trainings to local people. Of interest to policy-makers and resource managers in Nepal and worldwide is whether this approach to conservation leads to improved attitudes on the part of local people. It is also important to know if personal costs and benefits associated with various intervention programs, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics influence these attitudes. We explore these questions by looking at the experiences in Annapurna and Makalu-Baran Conservation Areas, Nepal, which have largely adopted a CBC approach in policy formulation, planning, and management. The research was conducted during 1996 and 1997; the data collection methods included random household questionnaire surveys, informal interviews, and review of official records and published literature. The results indicated that the majority of local people held favorable attitudes toward these conservation areas. Logistic regression results revealed that participation in training, benefit from tourism, wildlife depredation issue, ethnicity, gender, and education level were the significant predictors of local attitudes in one of the other conservation area. We conclude that the CBC approach has potential to shape favorable local attitudes and that these attitudes will be mediated by some personal attributes.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 940 Serial 672  
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